Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Mormons in Indoneisa (1949-1969) Part 2

Maxine Grimm may have been the first Latter-day Saint to preach the gospel in the fledgling country of Indonesia, but she was not the only one. There were several expatriate Mormons who lived in Indonesia in the late 1950s and 1960s who also befriended Indonesians, held church meetings, shared their beliefs and established useful government contacts. Most of these early Mormons in Indonesia came as employees of the U.S. government sent as advisors to a young country.
For five years, beginning in 1956, Virginia Farrer Cutler lived in the Kebayoran suburb of Jakarta where she worked as an educational advisor for the State Department’s International Cooperation Administration. Widowed at a very young age she raised two boys while getting a MA at Stanford and a PhD from Cornell. She then became a professor and the Head of the Home Economics Department at the University of Utah. Once her boys were raised she accepted a position with the U.S. government to help establish and strengthen teacher training colleges first in Thailand for two years and then in Indonesia. During her time in Indonesia she helped to increase the number of teacher training colleges from 8 to 12 and she helped send 35 people to the US for special training. One of her proudest accomplishments was soliciting the help of the McCalls dress pattern company in New York City to make standardized dress patterns that were adapted to fit the shape and cultural preferences of Indonesian woman. From these efforts many woman in Indonesia were able to work as seamstresses and thus participate at the local scale in helping the economy grow.[1]
With no other Mormons in Jakarta, Virginia took advantage of any opportunity she might have to fellowship with the saints including Maxine Grimm when she was in port. On one occasion she met some missionaries in route home from Australia and invited them to her apartment as well as fellow Mormon Garth Jones visiting Jakarta from Jogjakarta and they held a small sacrament service.[2] Far removed from regular Church meetings and temples, later in life Virginia set a goal to attend the temple enough times to make up for each week she had lived in temple-less Southeast Asia.[3]
Virginia was not the only expatriate Mormon to live and work in Indonesia during the years before the Church was formerly established.  In 1957 Garth H. Jones, accompanied by his wife Marie and their three sons, began a five year sojourn in Jogjakarta Indonesia as an U.S. foreign service officer assigned to the International Cooperation Administration (later called USAID) with the task of helping in the development of local governments in the newly independent country. Prior to his assignment in Indonesia, Jones has been a young instructor at BYU. There he became good friends with Professor George Hansen of the geology department. Once in Jogjakarta, Garth learned (via his wife) of a USAID project sponsored by UCLA to help establish a geology department at prestigious Gadjah Mada University. He thought George Hansen would be a perfect fit. Professor Hansen, who was near the end of a long and distinguished career at BYU, was indeed interested and so in 1959, George and Afton joined the Jonses as neighbors in Jogjakarta.[4]
 George and Afton Hansen in Jogjakarta
In addition to helping set up the new geology department, Hansen also consulted on various activities including mineral and water exploration. Three months after arriving George supervised the drilling of a water well in an agricultural area 40 miles southwest of Jogja where during the dry season there was not enough water for drinking. He wrote: “It is the most thrilling experience I think I have had with these people since I came to Java and I am hoping that the government will invite me to join them in a search for water in other places. …I repeat it is difficult to believe that in an area that has needed water so badly and has been cultivated so long we actually were in on the drilling of the first water well in the entire region.”[5] Interestingly, over forty years later LDS Charities would help with the installation of water projects in other parts of Central Java.
While the Jones family did on occasion hold a sacrament meeting in their home, they and the Hansens never did so together. When asked why the families did not worship together, Garth Jones explained that while they were all practicing Mormons, they saw themselves as visitors in a Muslim land and out of respect opted to limited outward worship and in part because it was never clear if they needed permission or had the proper authority from the Church to conduct such services.[6]  
In George Hansen’s journals he does note that on at least two different occasions he attended English services of the Western Indonesian Protestant Church. On one Sunday he conducted the services and on February 12, 1961 he gave the sermon. In his message about God and science he gave examples of scientific progress throughout history noting how scientific knowledge had changed over time. As he concluded his talk he threw in some distinct Mormon theology and quotes:
“We live in a time of a greater plenty in most things and a time of abundance in many. To me it all represents the handy work of God expressing itself in every modern facet of life. His miracle workers are at work as they were never priviledged (sic) to work yesterday.
“The most faith promoting experiences ought to come in the great experimental sciences where new laws and new techniques can be blended into life saving and life benefiting programs.
“Here we may in part see the unfolding of insights into the purposes and handy works of the master architect. It calls for the exercising of the greatest amounts of faith.  We are just beginning to see and understand some of nature’s secrets. We are beginning to see and feel what must be the infinat (sic) greatness in the world about us.
“Someone has said ‘as man is God once was, and as God is man may become.’ Great men in great performance may be our best modern idea of the power of God in operation among men.
“I know there are those who fear this modern world of science and discovery will move God out of the picture—sober minded, seasoned men of science I am sure do not think so. It brings God in as he could not come in yesterday. God must represent light and intelligence—if so the windows of heaven are just beginning to be flung open, and the mind of men are being prepared for new and more light.
“I believe that the glory of god is intelligence and we are saved only as fast and to the extent that we gain more knowledge and deeper understanding.
“As the universe grows great, we must dream for it a greater God. Amen”[7]
Hansen’s Mormon-laced sermon from a Protestant pulpit won no converts, but his sermons through daily living helped prepare the first Indonesian for conversion to the Church. His name was Sutrisno. One day Sutrisno visited the Jones family hoping that they would allow him to stay with them while he furthered his education. He had heard that they had welcomed another Javanese student into their home so that he could get an education and Sutrisno hoped he could do the same. The Joneses were impressed with Sutrisno’s command of the English language—something not very common in the early years of Indonesia—and recommended that perhaps he could stay with and help the newly arrived Hansens. The Hansens were happy to help Sutrisno further his education and so he moved in and for the next four years he earned his board and room by helping around the household.[8] Some of his duties included translating for the other household helpers, learning to drive so he could be their chauffer, and helping as a typist. He remembers at one point being asked to type a letter to President David O. McKay in which the Hansens asked about the possibility of sending missionaries to Indonesia. Sutrisno remembers that while the Hansens did not talk a lot about their church or offer to teach him about it, they did teach him much through their actions—including their keeping the Sabbath day holy and their abstinence from alcohol and tobacco.[9]
In 1959 Raymond and Dorothy Wendel moved to Surabaya where he worked as an agricultural advisor with the U.S. State Department. With no LDS congregation in Surabaya, the Wendel family attended an English speaking Baptist church. In 1961 Wendel was transferred to the U.S. embassy in Jakarta. Dorothy taught first grade at the Joint Embassy School. The family remained in Jakarta until increasing political upheavals necessitated leaving in March1965. They then moved to Korea for a few years, back to Jakarta (1969-1970) for a year, to Taiwan for four years and then a final stay in Indonesia for two years (1974-76) by which time he was working for the World Bank. After the Wendel family left Indonesia for the final time, their housemaid Mort (short for Morsini) joined the church and eventually served as a Relief Society President.[10]
The same year the Wendels moved to Jakarta, Jordan and Pat Tanner also arrived in the city. This was Jordan’s second US Foreign Service posting.  He was first assigned to the Cultural Affairs section and then was appointed as the first director of a newly opened American Center—which had a library, auditorium for cultural programs and meeting rooms.
The Wendels and the Tanners both lived in Jakarta and worked for the State Department from 1961 until 1965 and yet there is no recollection on the part of the Tanners that they ever met the Wendels.  Even if they did meet they never made the connection that they were both LDS. Tanner suggests that this may have happened because Wendel work as an agricultural advisor and was thus was not stationed in the embassy.[11] Interestingly, during part of this time, BYU graduate Virginia Fackrell worked in the US embassy as an assistant to the US Agricultural Attaché.[12] Her position would more likely have resulted in meeting Wendell and yet these two never made the Mormon connection either. Fackrell and the Tanners did make the connection and so most every Sunday during their combined time in Jakarta the Tanners would travel to Fackrell’s apartment where Jordan Tanner would bless and pass the sacrament and then one of the three would lead a gospel discussion. As an embassy employee Tanner was limited in the type of formal missionary work he could do. His main approach was to let people know he was Mormon and then answer their questions when asked, whether it be at the numerous cocktail parties and diners required of diplomats or in his associations with Indonesian students at the American Center.
Tanner’s posting at the American Center put him in a unique position to witness firsthand the tumultuous times in Indonesia leading up to the October 1965 coup. Of that time Tanner writes:
“This was a period of growing anti-American expression organized by Partai Komunis Indonesia [PKI, The Indonesia Communist Party].  I took it upon myself to organize several university student discussion groups. We would meet weekly to discuss foreign relations issues between the U.S. and Indonesia. Ambassador Howard Jones was very pleased that the Embassy was reaching out to some of the top student leaders…The activities of the American Center were attracting many university students, so much so that in December 1964 a group of around 300 PKI university students attacked the Center, set fires inside the building and destroyed or damaged much of the furniture and equipment.  Windows were broken as rocks poured into the building.  My office was on the second floor and I still have a couple of the rocks that hit my desk and a small piece of the American flag that was torn to pieces. I thought there was some possibility that the students would kill me, but when they broke the door down to my office, they said in Indonesian that they were not going to harm me, but were sending a message to the American government. I met with Embassy officials and it was decided to put the Center back together and not let anti-Americanism close us down. After we reopened there were several students who came to volunteer to put the books back on shelves and organize furniture. 
“In February 1965 an even larger group of communist students surrounded the Center, but did no damage. I was held hostage for most of the day as Embassy officials negotiated with the Indonesian government officials on my release. In the latter part of the day a group of Red Berets from the Merdeka Palace, home of President Sukarno, came armed in the back of a large truck and the Deputy Chief of Mission for the U.S. Embassy arrived in an official vehicle, a clearing between the students was made by the Red Berets and I ran to the Embassy vehicle with students shouting ganyang Amerika [crush America]. Other U.S. buildings in Jogjakarta and Surabaya were attacked and it was decided to transfer all Embassy American diplomats associated with the U.S. centers to other posts. Pat and I were transferred back to Seoul.”[13]
One other LDS family connected with the Tanners during their final year in Jakarta. George Kanahele, his wife Jean Ohai and their two young children moved to Jakarta in 1964 for his dissertation research on the Japanese Occupation of Indonesia for a PhD in government from Cornell University. With his Cornell connections, the Kanahele’s were able to meet many Indonesian notables including PKI members and two of the generals soon to be executed in the coup. Jean remembers attending just one sacrament meeting during her year in Jakarta and that was when the Tanners invited them to come for a baby blessing of a boy they had just adopted from Korea. At some point during his stay in Jakarta, Tanner had been informed by the Hansens  about Sutrisno and his interest in the church. The Hansens had hoped that the Tanners would be able to meet with him, but with the unexpected departure, Tanner was unable to do so. He then asked the Kanaheles if they would be able to go and meet Sutrisno, but the pressure to get all of his research done kept them from making the trip to Jogjakarta. Following the evacuation of the Tanners, the Kanaheles moved into the Tanner home for a few months to hold it for the US government. They departed to do more research in the Netherlands just before the September 30th coup.[14]
The departure/evacuation of these families left Indonesia without a Mormon presence. In more peaceful times and with better luck at identifying and gathering together members of the Church, they might have been the beginning nucleus to help establish an official presence of the Church in Indonesia. Instead, that formal presence needed to wait a few years until Indonesia had recovered from its “year of living dangerously” [15]
Throughout this political storm and from the security of their home back in Provo, George and Afton Hansen regularly corresponded with Sutrisno and kept him supplied with copies of church magazines. Meanwhile, Sutrisno sought work, first in Bali (where he met his wife) and then later in Jakarta (1967) where his Hansen-enhanced good command of English helped him to gain work at the Ford Foundation. While at the Ford Foundation Sutrisno learned of a new consultant from Utah named Perry Polson. Knowing that the Hansens were from Utah, he set out to see if Polson perhaps knew the Hansens. He was surprised to find out that the Hansens did indeed know Polson (a BYU business education professor and one of the first post-coup Mormons to venture into Indonesia) and that they had requested that Polson look up Sutrisno. That meeting turned into a close friendship, strengthened in part through Sutrisno’s assignment to teach Indonesian to Polson and his wife Gwen in their home.
One Sunday in the fall of 1968, the Polsons invited Sutrisno and his wife to their home for what turned out to be a 10:00 am sacrament meeting. The Sutrisnos joined in and were impressed when five year old Bradley Butler stood up to bear his testimony in which he expressed love for his parents, belief in Jesus Christ and happiness for being a child of God. Sutrisno thought how happy he would be to hear his own child do such a thing.[16]  
With that beginning, the Sutrisnos began to meet weekly with the small group of Jakarta Latter-day Saints. In addition to the Polsons, the group included several other expatriate families living in Jakarta. Dennis and Vernene Butler had arrived in Jakarta in January 1968 with their two young sons (including testimony bearing Brad)—a baby daughter joined the family in 1971 and was given the Indonesian name of Sarinah. He was from Canada, she was from California and they had met at BYU. He worked for Canadian External Affairs. While stationed in Hamburg, Germany he was asked if he would be willing to accept a new assignment in Indonesia. His first response was, “I don’t even know where it is.” His second response was that he needed to check with his wife. He also checked with Church headquarters to see if there were Mormon congregations in Indonesia. He was told no. A few days later when the ambassador asked for an answer, Butler said he would accept the assignment—he would be the second secretary in the Canadian embassy in Jakarta (next in seniority to the ambassador).  Later while on home leave in Canada for Christmas he called church headquarters again to inform leaders that he was moving to Jakarta in a month. This time he was told that he should arrange to stop in Hong Kong on his way to Jakarta and meet with Brent Hardy. Butler dutifully complied. In Hong Kong President Hardy set him apart as the Group Leader for the Church in Indonesia and told him to look for a man at the Ford Foundation named Sutrisno who might be willing to help.
For the Butlers it is no small coincidence that Dennis was in the right place at the right time to be set apart as the first priesthood leader in Indonesia. They feel as if the “hand of the Lord was involved” with getting them there. His first job following graduation was as a school teacher in California. While there, the Canadian government approached him to see if he would be willing to take the civil service exam and consider working for the Canadian foreign ministry.  He patriarchal blessing said that he would “enter many lands and do work for the church” and so he decided to give it a try. Dennis knew French which made him even more desirable in bi-lingual Canada, so when he was unable to take the civil service exam on the scheduled date, they changed the date just for him. Of the 2,000 that took the exam, 200 passed and of those only 20 were selected for the foreign service.[17]
A few months later another LDS family joined the growing group.  Ludy and Toontje VanderHoeven were converts to the Church from the Netherlands. They had emigrated to the United Sates where he worked as an auditor for the US Agency for International Development. They came with their six children (a seventh was born while living in Jakarta) from an assignment in Turkey. While living in Turkey, Ludy was set apart as a Seventy in the Melchizedek Priesthood. The primary duty of a Seventy was missionary work. When Elder Howard W. Hunter visited Jakarta, Ludy wondered about how he could fulfill his primary priesthood duty in a non-missionary land. Elder Hunter told him that he could still serve as a Seventy/missionary in Jakarta, and so he did.[18]
Two other families rounded out the group; Raymond and Dorothy Wendell—back in Jakarta after a few years hiatus; and Don and Karen Cornelius—he worked in the business sector of the US Embassy.[19]
The Jakarta group at first rotated homes for Sunday services, but eventually they settled on the Butler home because they brought an organ with them and because as an embassy house it was quite large and even equipped with great big benches. Sutrisno became a regular at these meetings and expressed interest in learning more, so Brothers Butler and VanderHoeven began to visit him in his home for regular lessons. On June 1, 1969, after more than a decade of close interactions with Latter-day Saints, Sutrisno was baptized a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints by Ludy VanderHoeven. The ordinance was performed in the swimming pool of a Canadian embassy villa outside of Bogor. At the same service eight year old Stephen VanderHoeven was also baptized by his father and Sutrisno’s two month old son son Aris was given a name and a blessing. Sutrisno’s wife would be baptized by her husband on March 29, 1970 after having been taught by Elders Willard and Storer.
In the summer of 1969, two other Indonesians also joined the church. Ibrahim and his wife Julia had traveled from Jakarta to Tokyo and then to Amsterdam where they sought specialist treatment for her failing eye-sight due to diabetes. While in Amsterdam the Ibrahims were visited by two LDS missionaries who taught them the gospel for two months and then baptized them. Following her baptism, Julia noted that even though they had found no treatment for her eyes, she “had more energy and was healthier than ever before.” She also found that she could once again shop and cook for herself, “write letters without having sentences blurred” and she could “see people and carry out conversations with them.”[20] The Ibrahims returned to Jakarta and somehow met up with the other members of the church. Within less than a year, both Sutrisno and Ibrahim were called to serve as counselors in the branch presidency with Ludy VanderHoeven.
In the late 1960s phones were not very common in Indonesia and not always dependable. More often than not the primary form of communication between LDS members was just dropping by someone’s house rather than having to deal with the sporadic phone service. During the rainy season of January 1969, the Butlers remember one very rainy evening hearing the phone ring and deciding not to answer it because no one ever seemed to call them and on rainy nights sometimes the phone would just jingle without anyone being on the line. They ignored a second call too. Finally on the third call, Vernene decided to answer.  A voice spoke: “Sister Butler? This is Howard W. Hunter of the Council of the Twelve.” To which Vernene replied: “Oh Ludy [VanderHoeven] you’re kidding, no?” Ludy had a thick Dutch accent so his being able to impersonate Elder Hunter would have been quite an act. Dennis then called out, “who is it?” Vernene replied: “Well he says it’s Howard W. Hunter, but I know it’s Ludy.”  The voice then said, “Can I speak to Brother Butler?” Brother Butler decided to take the call. It was indeed Elder Hunter; he and his wife were on their way home from a visit to Australia and made an unannounced stopover in Jakarta. Dennis asked: ‘Where are you?” Elder Hunter replied: “Here in Jakarta and I’d like to meet with you and the other members if possible.” Since Elder Hunter was scheduled to fly out the next day to Singapore, Dennis said he would come to meet him at the Hotel Indonesia but given the heavy rain and the predictable flooding along the road to the hotel he explained that he may not be able to get through. “If I don’t come, it’s because the car [engine] got wet!” The Butlers were able to get through (limited time, heavy rains and lousy phones prevented the Butlers from contacting the other LDS families) without the car stalling and had a nice visit with Elder and Sister Hunter who had been asked to check out the situation in Indonesia.[21]
That same day, the Lanikai had been docked in Tanjung Priok where the Grimms were hosting Brother and Sister Wendel and others for lunch. At some point in the afternoon a cable came through with the horrible news that the Grimm home in Tooele had caught fire, destroying all of Maxine’s journals and home movies of her time in Southeast Asia. Maxine wanted to know more details, but phoning from Jakarta to Utah was not possible. They decided to sail for Singapore that night so they could get more information. Soon after setting sail they hit a wave rocking squall. Intrepid Maxine, who wanted to film the amazing storm, remembers that she could” barely hold on and tape the movie” as waves crashed over the deck. Amazed by the strength of the storm, she said to her husband that they had to turn around and head for the safety of the harbor. Once docked, they collapsed into bed. As they slept, there was a knock on the door of their stateroom. Maxine called out “come in!” and when the door opened she saw Elder Hunter standing in the doorway. The Butlers, thinking that the Grimms were still in town, had driven the Hunters to the harbor for a late night visit. Elder Hunter was very apologetic for having barged in, but Maxine saw it as a heaven sent source of comfort in her time of despair. The Grimms then invited the Hunters to stay for a few days to see the sights in Indonesia, which they did.[22] Perhaps in his report to the other Brethren, Elder Hunter may have mentioned how rains did not stall the Butlers from hosting a General Authority, but they did turn back the Grimms so that they could host him. 

(left to  right: Sister and Elder Hunter on board the Lanikai with the Grim family: Pete Jr., Maxine, Pete Sr. and Linda)
Things were falling into place: calm had been restored under Suharto’s regime, President Hardy and Elder Hunter had visited Indonesia and filed exploratory reports, Maxine Grimm continued to recommend opening Indonesia to her prophet and apostle friends, Jan Walandouw was ready and willing to help with bureaucratic maneuvers, several strong LDS families with governmental connections had almost simultaneously arrived in Jakarta to live, and Sutrisno and the Ibrahims had been baptized.
At some point during 1969 another Mormon-merchant-missionary also travelled to Indonesia hoping to spread the gospel. His name was Frits Willem Tessers.[23] He was born in 1929 in Makassar Sulawesi to parents with a mixed Dutch/Indonesian/Chinese/African ancestry. His mother’s great grandfather Willem Zwoll had come to the Dutch East Indies from the Dutch colony in Southern Africa to help in the war against Aceh. His father Karl was a cartographer for the Dutch government and his grandfather Jacob was a colonial official in the Dutch East Indies. During the Japanese occupation Jacob was beheaded by the Japanese as an example of what would happen to anyone who did not cooperate. Following WWII, Frits remained in the Indies where while still a teenager he was trained to be a bomber pilot. At some point during the next few years he helped to teach others in the Indies how to fly. He also married and had three children and worked running a large floral business. Following Indonesian independence, Frits fled the country (with only a diamond under his tongue). For unknown reasons, his wife and children remained in Indonesia. Frits relocated to the Netherlands where he re-married and started a second family. He served with the Dutch military in Korea which then opened the door for the Tessers family to emigrate to the United States in 1960.
The family settled in Huntington Beach, California under the sponsorship of the Episcopal Church. Early on in their stay Frits was presented a Book of Mormon by an LDS acquaintance. As a Catholic who was attending the Episcopal Church (out of duty for having been helped to relocate), Frits had no desire to add another religion to the mix. Several years later, the family became acquainted with another Mormon—Ted Johnson a fifth grade teacher who taught two of the sons during back-to-back years. Ted’s priesthood office at the time was that of Seventy and so as a ward missionary he was always looking for opportunities to introduce his religion to others. This included setting out LDS magazines on tables during parent-teacher conferences for people to read while waiting. It also included approaching Frits Tessers during the second year of teaching a Tessers son when, after a parent teacher conference, he asked if Mr. Tesssers would be interested in learning more about the Mormon Church. The family agreed, liked what they heard and decided to be baptized. The mother Elisabeth Muller Tessers and the three oldest (of eight) children were baptized in 1967, with Frits, who took a while to quit a smoking habit, following suite in 1968.
Shortly after joining the Church, Frits started an import/export business that focused on Indonesia. He looked forward to his first trip back to Indonesia in over 20 years as a great missionary opportunity to share his new found faith with people he would meet in his native land. In preparation for that 1969 trip, Frits filled up a large leather suitcase with copies of the Book of Mormon and stacks of various pamphlets about the LDS Church with the intent to share them throughout his several month stay. When he arrived in Jakarta, a customs agent, upon inspection of his bags, was concerned that the large collection of English language materials might be subversive or illegal and so Frits was taken into detention. Soon a senior military officer wearing dark glasses came in and asked: “Mr. Tessers?” Fits replied: “yes.”  The officer responded: “Mr. Frits Tessers?” Frits replied “yes.” With that confirmation, the officer removed his glasses and with a big smile exclaimed: “I’m the first pilot you taught to fly!”  He then gave Frits a big hug. After renewing acquaintances, he asked Frits about all of the printed materials. Frits explained: “These are all materials that will help people to understand the LDS religion.” The reply satisfied the officer who then offered military transport to Frits during his business travels.
The only report of what Frits did with his many copies of the Book of Mormon was that with the approval of his military friend he was able to place them in hotels along the way.  During his travels he met one Indonesian member of the Church, most likely Sutrisno, and he learned enough about the fledgling church in Indonesia that he returned with a strong desire to help the kingdom grow in his homeland. He therefore sent a letter to Church leaders with a recommendation that a separate mission be established in Indonesia and that missionaries be sent to serve there. A reply letter informed Brother Tessers that it was not yet the time for such a bold move. Brother Tessers, who was described by his son as being “passionate in his proclamations,” and who was very excited to see the Church grow in Indonesia was hurt by the reply, resulting in several years of limited activity in the church.
Frits died of cancer in 1992. On the day of his funeral a grandson was born. That grandson was named Frits Willem Tessers II (son of Jim and Lisa Tessers). In February 2012, after two months of language training in the Missionary Training Center in Provo Utah that grandson started his missionary service in the Indonesia Jakarta mission. The family sees this calling as a fulfillment of Frits Tessers Sr.’s desire to spread the faith in a land he loved.
The person at Church headquarters who tersely responded to Tessers letter may not have been in the Indonesia loop for it seems as if plans were already or soon would be in the process of exploring whether or not to open up missionary work in Indonesia. 

[1] Virgina Cutler Autobiography. MSS Sc 2573 L. Tom Perry Special Collections BYU
[2] Garth Jones interview. July 7, 2011
[3] Merrill J. Batemen,  Becoming a disciple of Christ. 1997 BYU Women’s Conference
[4] Jones, Garth N. Spreading the Gospel in Indonesia: A Jonah and a Contagion. Unpublished manuscript 1981.
[5] In George Henry Hansen Collection (1896-1981) November 1959 Journal  MSS 1628 29/8
[6] Garth Jones interview. July 7, 2011
[7] In George Henry Hansen Collection (1896-1981) MSS 1628 . L. Tom Perry Special Collections, BYU
[8] Hansen, Afton H. Under Banyan Tress in Indonesia. 1973.
[9] Sutrisno. Tanpa Saya, Gereja Dapat Terus Berkembang; Tanpa Gereja, Saya Tidak Dapapt Berbahagia. Terang OSZA April 1990. p. 35.
[10] E-mail letter from Douglas George Wendel, December 13, 2008.
[11] Jordan Tanner, personal correspondence, November 7-8 2011.
[12] Obituary Virgina Fackrell, Deseret News, October 13, 2004. http://www.deseretnews.com/article/1287937/Obituary-Virginia-Fackrell.html?pg=all

[13] Jordan Tanner, personal correspondence, November 7-8 2011.
[14] Jean Ohai, personal correspondence, June 11, 2013.
[15] In his August 17, 1964 Independence Day speech President Sukarno used the term “living dangerously” (borrowed from a twentieth century Italian nationalist poet) to encapsulate his rising disdain for American influence in the region and his desire to inspire greater nationalism within Indonesia. See Theodore Friend’s Indonesian Destinies (Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003) p. 91.
[16] Sutrisno. Tanpa Saya, Gereja Dapat Terus Berkembang; Tanpa Gereja, Saya Tidak Dapapt Berbahagia. Terang OSZA April 1990. p. 36.

[17] Dennis and Vernene Bltler interview, March 10, 2011
[18] Ludy and Toontje VanderHoeven interview, January 27, 2011
[19] Dennis and Vernene Butler interview, March 10, 2011

[20] Letter from Julia R. Ibrahim. Echo Asia. May 1970, p. 4
[21] Dennis and Vernene Butler interview, March 10, 2011
[22] Maxine Grimm interview, October 26, 2007
[23] January 11, 1012 interview with Frtis Rene Tessers (son of Frits Willem Tessers).

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